Value and the Consumption of Form
Consequently, what we observe in the evolution of the Celtic world is not only increase in the degree of centralization, of vertical and horizontal differentiation, but above all, the appearance of a s[specialized governmental institution, a bureaucracy, in which the principal public powers-judicial, military, and religious-tended to concentrate. A parallel development is the establishment of a monetary economy, an economy based on a unit of value which had to be accepted in exchange for any commodity; a value system that allowed and facilitated differential consumption. Thus, a qualitative change was achieved. Political and economic organization became changed in character, Celtic society acquired the fundamental criteria of what we call the state.
b. Arnold & D.B Gibson, Beyond the Mist: Forging an Ethnological Approach to Celtic Studies, in b. Arnold & D.B Gibson (ed) Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State