Cambria

everysea1

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Problems

‘The poem has no strong narrative……. the battle’ (this is the strong narrative element).

The emphasis on the poem having no strong narrative is given in introduction in order to demonstrate that its not an epic poem.

The poem is thought to have originally had no strong narrative, the narrative surrounding the battle is a later inclusion.

This part is getting confused and lost as it’s replicated.

Historical argument is lost as a concern with literary classification is over-stressed in introduction.

This argument relates to no linguistic unity/ considerable linguistic unity.

I have a considerable headache here as I have over stressed the lack of linguistic unity in the early medieval period in contrast to the 13th century.

Its very easy to get into a mess here.

Over- inflected generalizations, can’t live with them/ can’t live without them

Frontier Psychiatrist

The arguments made so far have neglected the problem of explaining through what mechanism the properties of individuals give rise to properties of languages………….

One of the most basic and pervasive properties of human language is regularity. That is if one meaning is expressed using a particular rule or construction, then it is likely that another meaning will also make use of the same pattern. We might therefore expect regularity to arise from some fundamental aspect of our language faculty- in other words our prior bias might be expected to reflect this central universal strongly…. However…………. the overwhelming conclusion is that   strong biases are not necessary to explain the emergence of pervasive regularity. It seems that regularity emerges whenever the number of training samples that the learners are exposed to is small. If there is too little data stable languages do not emerge, while if there is too much training data, the emergent languages are not regular, but instead express meanings in an ad hoc way. Kirby, Smith & Brighton (2004) explain this behavior in terms of adaption to the bottleneck– the limited  amount of linguistic examples from which each speaker must learn the language. A regular rule can persist into the next generation so long as the learner sees only one example of it, but an irregular expression can only persist into the next generation if the learner is exposed to exactly that expression.

reference

> M. Dowman, S. Kirby & T.L. Griffiths, Innateness and Cultural In The Evolution of Language

 

 

Lets Get Physical

Cut and Paste

“Frontier” will be used in the historian’s sense to refer to the outer edge of settlement within a given area and not to a political boundary.”

 

Tudfwlch violent in slaughter, a fortified citadel

 

The example of Gothic Victoriacum may illustrate the point………They were aggressive outsiders, but there was no home base, either cultural or political, from which they moved or to which they could return. Try as we might, we can find no physical frontier in Visigothic Spain.

reference

M.W. Mikesell, Comparative Studies in Frontier History, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 50, No.1 (Mar., 1960)

J.T. Koch, The Gododdin Of Aneirin Text and Context from Dark-Age North Britain

M. Kulikowski, Ethnicity, Rulership and Early Medieval Frontiers

 

 

The Citadel

Tudfwlch violent in slaughter, a fortified citadel

One thing that can be drawn from M. Kulikowski’s observations on Gothic expansion in Spain is that we should expect to find no clear relationship between territorial expansion and linguistic expansion.

No linguistic unity.

If I look at the way cultural history is recorded and deployed in 12th century Wales, the identification with past is made on the basis of  linguistic unity.

The poem  appears to have been written in an archaic ancestor language of the middle Welsh spoken in the 12th century.

Continuity with the past, but the idea of Wales as a territory and a people united by language is absent from that past.

 

Is Dexter Criminally Insane?

Nearly seven decades have passed since Fredrick Jackson Turner (1861-1932) developed a new approach to American History, an approach which has come to be known as the frontier hypothesis or the Turner thesis. In the intervening years a substantial part of the work of American historians has been devoted to analysis, criticism and elaboration of Turner’s views. Yet, there is little agreement that the main problems of frontier history have been solved. For every theory there is at least one counter theory, and for every generalization there are specific objections. In view of this state of discord, there would seem to be little justification for bringing to the geographers. There is, however, one aspect of their work that deserves serious attention, and that is the growing body  of comparative research. In this review attention will be directed to several recent attempts to compare the westward movement in American history with the advance of settlement in other parts of the world. “Frontier” will be used in the historian’s sense to refer to the outer edge of settlement within a given area and not to a political boundary.”

 

Note

I know little about American history and nothing in regard to frontier studies. This was the first article I pulled from a google search “frontier studies.”

I know a little about Gothic and Frankish history but not as much as I should. I have a bias in relation to the subject due to my introduction to it as an undergraduate.

At the time the subject was notable for its calls for a return to ‘historical purity’ and a dismissal by historians of the use of archeological and comparative data.

I have a tendency to  view Gothic and Frankish history as a ‘potential hot bed of small c. historical conservatism’

This is  not correct, any branch of history throws up a range of opinions, I just have a tendency to  relate this observation to my first experience of confronting it.

It’s the first question I ask of Historians working in this area. I can’t help but note the contrast. I had some difficulty with the first sentence before reading the second source.

Try as we might, we can find no physical frontier in Visigothic Spain

 

“Frontier” will be used in the historian’s sense to refer to the outer edge of settlement within a given area and not to a political boundary.”

This is my first impression and introduction to American frontier history. I have no idea what to make of it other than to note my own bias here and not let my own imagination go into overdrive.

Reference

M.W. Mikesell, Comparative Studies in Frontier History, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 50, No.1 (Mar., 1960)