Widening, Connecting and Reorganizing (WCR) Creativity Test

Widening the mental field through divergent thinking, which is activated under circumstances that provide multiple ways out and in situations where there are few constraints. Moreover, it involves changing dominant ideas and generating new ones in order to create a wide range of options.
Connecting different mental fields through unusual combination of ideas, that support new possibilities and original solutions.
Reorganizing the mental field, which allows one to get in touch with new properties of the situation’s elements and to consider them from a different perspective. Therefore, a transformation of the point of view can take place and this supports the inclusion of available data into a new conceptual organization.

The WCR Creativity Test (Antonietti, Giorgetti, & Pizzingrilli, 2011 Antonietti, A., Giorgetti, M., & Pizzingrilli, P. (2011). Io penso creativo. Valutare e potenziare gli aspetti creativi del pensiero [I think creative. Assess and improve creative aspects of thinking]. Firenze: Giunti. [Google Scholar]) permits to identify the three basic skills of creative thinking mentioned above, namely:

The ability to widen (W), consisting in knowing how to produce many different ideas and to broaden the perspective.
The ability to connect (C), which concerns the ability to establish relationships between elements and to combine them beyond their appearances and similarities/differences.
The ability to reorganize (R), that is, the ability to de-contextualize the elements of the situation, reconstruct them, and change the perspective.

The test is composed of nine items, consisting of both visual (pictures of objects, geometric figures and sketches) and verbal (words or short phrases) stimuli.


Alice Cancer, The alleged link between creativity and dyslexia: Identifying the specific process in which dyslexic students excel



Countless Others and the Number 27 Bus


Whose Mind Contains the Number 27?

Philosophers who affirm the existence of abstract objects are sometimes called platonists; those who deny their existence are sometimes called nominalists. This terminology is lamentable, since these words have established senses in the history of philosophy, where they denote positions that have little to do with the modern notion of an abstract object. However, the contemporary senses of these terms are now established, and so the reader should be aware of them.


Abstract Objects, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


I read that the late 17th century philosopher I study is using a form of platonic essentialisim, moments before in another paper Aristotle’s  faculties is the guiding principle.

I have no idea what is being suggested here. Historical papers, but I get no sense of historical context. The place to start I suspect is to ask what are the nature of arguments surrounding abstraction in the late 17th century?

Else of Somewhere


Far better to reconsider our starting point, the notion that writing is essentially a technology that transforms speech.

Writing as a sign system

The world’s first writing systems first appeared in the agricultural societies of southern Mesopotamia, and a little later of Egypt, south-west Iran and the Indus Valley.  Even if the ‘idea’ of writing had a single source- something not at all evident given its independent invention elsewhere on the planet in broadly similar social  contexts- these early scripts were not related, and their use was highly localized.

They were preceded by so called pre- or proto- literate notional systems, and perhaps by token systems used in the Neolithic. None of those systems were designed to encode speech, and they are best seen as in some ways similar to systems of talleys. This does not mean their use was unsophisticated. The main difference between a system of this kind and the writing systems most of us in western societies employ everyday, is that a good deal of prior knowledge is demanded of the user about conventions and context- what is being counted? what do the sequencing conventions convey? what is the transactional situation of the record? how is time factored into the record?……….. Context- part of the knowledge that users already possess- is essential to all sign use.


Greg Woolf, Ancient Illiteracy?