The Expression of Moisture

Grief and pain cause sighing,  sobbing, groaning, screaming, and roaring; tears, distorting of the face, grinding of the teeth, sweating. Sighing is caused by the drawing in of a greater quantity of breath to refresh the heart that laboureth; like a great draught when one is thirsty. Sobbing is the same thing stronger. Groaning, and screaming, and roaring, are caused by an appetite of expulsion, as hath been said: for when the spirits cannot expel the thing that hurteth, in their strife to do it, by motion of consent, they expel the voice. And this is when the spirits yield, and give over to resist: for if one do constantly resist pain, he will not groan.

Tears are caused by contraction of the spirits of the brain, and thereby sendeth tears into the eyes. And this contraction or compression causeth also wringing of the hands; for wringing is a gesture of moisture. The distorting of the face is caused by contention, first to bear and resist, and then to expel; which maketh the parts knit first, and then afterwards open. Grinding of the teeth is cuased likewise, by a gathering and serring of the spirits together to resist, which maketh the teeth also to set hard one against another. Sweating is also a compound motion, by the labour of the spirts, first to resist, and then to expel.


The Works of Lord Bacon. Vol. 1


Folio 83v – The Nature of Man, Continued

inter omnes sensus viciniores anime existunt. In oculis\ enim omne mentis indicium est. Unde et anime perturbatio\ vel hilaritas in oculis apparet. Oculi enim idem et lumi\na, et dicta lumina quod ex eis lumen manat, vel quod\ inicio sui clausam teneant lucem, aut extrinsecus acceptam\ visui proponendo refundant. Pupilla est medius punc\tus oculi in quo vis videndi est. Ubi quia parve ymagines\ vobis videntur propterea pupille appellantur. Nam par\vuli pupilli dicuntur, hanc plerique pupullam vocant. Vo\catur enim pupilla, quod sit pura atque impolluta, ut sunt\ puelle. Phisici dicunt easdem pupillas quas videmus in\ oculis morituros ante triduum non habere, quibus non visis\ certa est desperatio. Circulus vero quo a pupilla albe partes oculi\ separantur discreta nigredine corona dicitur, quod rotunditate\ sua ornet ambitum pupille. Volvos enim quidam appel\lant vertices ipsos oculorum a similitudine valvarum.\ Palpebre sunt sinus oculorum a palpitatione dicte, quia\ semper moventur. Concurrunt enim invicem, ut assiduo\ motu reficiant obtutum. Munite sunt enim vallo capillorum\ ut et apertis oculis siquid inciderit repellatur, ut et sompno\ cohibentibus tanquam involuti quiescant latentes. In summi\tate enim palpebrarum locis quibus se ultraque clausa [PL, utreque clause] contin\gunt, extant annotati ordine servato capilli tutelam oculis\ ministrantes, ne irruentes facile iniurias excipiant et ex eo\ noceantur, ut pulveris vel cuiusquam crassioris materie\ arceant contactum, aut ipsum quoque aerem concidendo\ mitificent, quo tenuem atque serenum faciunt visum. La\crimas a laceratione mentis quidam putant dictas, alii\


the eyes are, of all the senses, the most closely allied to the soul. For they reflect every aspect of the intellect. As a result, confusion or joy within the soul is visible in the eyes. The eyes are the same as lights and are called ‘lights’, lumen, because light pours forth from them, or because from the beginning they hold light enclosed within them, or because they take in light from outside and reflect it to create vision. The pupil, pupilla, is the middle point of the eyes, in which the power of seeing resides. Because you see small images at this point, it is called pupilla, a word for ‘little children’. For little boys are called pupilli. Many people call the pupil pupilla, ‘the little girl’, because it is pure and undefiled, as girls are. Physicians say that those who are dying lack for three days before death those pupils which we see in the eyes; if they are not visible, it is a clear sign that the patient’s condition is hopeless. The circle by which the white of the eye is separated from the pupil, defined by its black colour, is called the corona, because its roundness enhances the circumference of the pupil like a garland, corona. Some call the upper lid, vertex, of the eye, volvus, from its similarity to the leaf of a door, valva. The eyelids, palpebre, fold over the eyes. The word comes from palpitatio, ‘frequent, rapid movement’, because the lids are always in motion. For they move quickly to meet each other, so that by their constant motion they refresh the vision. The eyelids are fortified by a rampart of hairs, so that if anything should fall into the eyes when they are open, it is repelled; also that, with the lids closing in sleep, the eyes should rest hidden as if wrapped up. At the extreme edges of the eyelids, in the places where they touch each other when closed, lashes stand in line, providing protection for the eyes, lest they should be easily hurt by things blundering into them and be damaged as a result. These lashes are also designed to prevent contact with dust or any heavier matter, or, in addition, soften the air itself by filtering it, making vision clear and bright. Some think that the word for tears, lacrime, comes from the phrase, laceratio mentis, ‘rending of the mind’………..


The Aberdeen Bestiary



Remembering Latin

Manu =  By hand

manual, relating to the hand.

manufacture, to make by hand or machine

manuscript, a handwritten piece of writing

manifest, seen at hand

manipulate, to work out by hand

maneuver, to bring about by skill, to guide, to manipulate


Some English words using the Latin root, manu, by hand.

Look at a thirteenth century way to remember the Latin term and hold it in memory.

I already have something to hand for that task.

Aut Natura Aut Manu (By Nature/ By Hand)

Constat igitur artificiosa memoria locis et imaginibus.  Locos appellamus eos, qui breviter, perfecte, insignite aut natura aut manu sunt absoluti, ut eos facile naturali memoria conprehendere et amplecti queamus: <ut> aedes, intercolumnium, angulum, fornicem et alia, quae his similia sunt.  Imagines sunt formae quaedam et notae et simulacra eius rei, quam meminisse volumus: quod genus equi, leones, aquilae; [memoriam] si volemus habere imagines eorum, locis certis conlocare oportebit. Nunc, cuiusmodi locos invenire et quo pacto reperire et in locis imagines constituere oporteat, ostendemus.

The artificial memory includes backgrounds and images. By backgrounds I mean such scenes as are naturally or artificially set off on a small scale, complete and conspicuous, so that we can grasp and embrace them easily by the natural memory — for example, a house, an intercolumnar space, a recess, an arch, or the like. An image is, as it were, a figure, mark, or portrait of the object we wish to remember; for example, if we wish to recall a horse, a lion, or an eagle, we must place its image in a definite background. Now I shall show what kind of backgrounds we should invent and how we should discover the images and set them therein.


H. Caplan (trans.) Rhetorica ad Herennium




No Escape

James L. Smith, Water as Medieval Intellectual Entity: Case Studies in Twelfth Century Western Monsticism

I was optimistic after reading the abstract. Not in the mood for reading today. Text has too many words. Like diving into a fluid pool of ready made concrete that is about to set.

A frustrating day.